What Does Chronic Absenteeism Cost Students with Disabilities?

Head shot of author Hedy ChangIn celebration of Attendance Awareness Month, NCWD/Youth welcomes guest blogger Hedy Chang, Director of Attendance Works. Attendance Works is a national nonprofit focused on improving the policy, practice, and research around school attendance. NCWD/Youth is a Collaborating Partner for Attendance Awareness Month.

We all start the school year with high hopes for new accomplishments, better grades and greater success. But before September is over, a pernicious problem begins to undermine these goals: school absenteeism.

Too many missed days can leave students falling behind in their classes, disconnected from classmates and more likely to drop out of high school. The problem is particularly acute for students with disabilities.

A new report from Attendance Works and Healthy Schools Campaign found that students with disabilities are more likely to miss too much school than other students. About 27 percent of 8th graders with disabilities had high rates of absenteeism, compared to 19 percent of others, according to an analysis of information from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

Infographic with text across top "Attend Today, Achieve Tomorrow" Good School Attendance Means... followed by images of school aged youth with captions "Elementary Stidents: read well by the end of third grade Middle Schoolers: pass important courses; High Schoolers: stay on track for graduation; College Students: earn their degrees; Workers: succeed in their jobs" Under the images is the text "Too many absences - excused or unexcused can keep students from succeeding in school and in life. How many are too many? 10% of the school year - that's 18 missed days or 2 days a month - can knock students off track" and Attendance Works Logo featuring a hand placed on top of an apple.

These high absenteeism rates correlate with lower graduation rates. In the 2012-2013 school year, about 62 percent of students with disabilities graduated on time, nearly 20 points below the national average.

Image showing three cartoon students at desks. Top line of text "Attend Today. Achieve Tomorrow." Bottom line of text "Attendance works www.attendanceworks.org" Some of these absences reflect the health concerns of physically disabled students, but others occur because of the lack of appropriate educational placements, bullying, or school aversion that can affect students with learning disabilities, particularly those with emotional issues. In addition, students with disabilities are more than twice as likely as other youth to receive an out-of-school suspension.

Fortunately, this is a problem that can be solved when families, schools and community partners work together. Here are some key steps:

  1. Make sure to track student absences. It’s important to count days missed for excused and unexcused absences, as well as suspensions. They all add up to lost instructional time. Research suggests that missing 10 percent of the school year – 18 days in many districts – is a tipping point for academic problems. That may sounds like a lot, but it’s only two days a month.
  2. Create a welcoming environment at school. The best way to improve attendance is to make school a place where students want to come. A greeting at the front door, a teacher who notices when students are absent, and/or incentives for showing up every day can create a culture of attendance. A firm handle on bullying is also essential.
  3. Provide extra support for students with poor attendance: If a student is chronically absent or getting close to the 10 percent mark, we need to intervene. Teachers can talk to families about strategies for improving attendance using this Student Attendance Success Plan or can include attendance goals in the Individualized Educational Program. Mentors, whether community volunteers or older students, have proven successful in reducing absences for some student.
  4. Tap community partners to help. Given that physical and mental health conditions often contribute to absences, it’s important to engage doctors, nurses, and public health officials in improving attendance. School-based health centers and merely the presence of a school nurse have been proven to reduce absenteeism. Other community partners – afterschool providers, housing authorities, transit agencies and business and faith leaders – can also help children and families address the barriers that keep them from getting to school. See these handouts for making the case to community partners/

Improved attendance is one positive outcome linked to family involvement for students including students with disabilities. In addition to the tips above for school-based staff, mentors, and community members, check out these related resources for families to help increase student success!



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Health Care Transition: What Do Youth Need to Know?

Headshot: Frances VhayBy Frances Vhay, Program Associate at the Institute for Educational Leadership’s Center for Workforce Development

Health care transition, which is the process of switching from pediatric to adult health care, is scary and challenging. Many youth see the same pediatrician for most of their lives and suddenly they need to find a new adult doctor—one who doesn’t know them or their history. For young people with disabilities or chronic health conditions, this is even harder. It is difficult to find an adult doctor who understands disabilities or complicated medical histories. For some youth, they may only be part of the first or second generation of people with their disability living into adulthood, so it is hard to find an adult provider with knowledge of their disability or chronic health condition. Yet, it is critical for young adults to transition in their medical care. Pediatricians are trained to care for children and teens, while adult and family physicians are trained to help keep you healthy as an adult.

Young doctor meets with teenager

Photo credit: https://www.thenationalcouncil.org/practice-improvement/reducing-adolescent-substance-abuse-initiative/

Currently, there is little to no formal transition process for moving young adults from pediatric to adult care providers. This means that many youth do not successfully make the switch to adult doctors. Many stop receiving regular health care because they struggle to find a new doctor that understands their conditions and history. My pediatrician had initially told me that I could stay under her care until I graduated from college. I had been seeing my pediatrician since I was four years old. While I had gradually begun taking more responsibility in making appointments and seeing her by myself during high school, we had not yet discussed switching to an adult provider. I called my doctor’s office during my sophomore year of college to make an appointment with her and was told by a nurse that my pediatrician wanted me to switch immediately to an adult physician. Although I asked to speak with my pediatrician directly and to have a final appointment with her so that she could help me transition my care, I was rebuffed. My pediatrician did not even provide me with a recommendation for an adult provider; I was told to call the central office and see who was available.

As someone with a chronic health condition, I had hoped that my pediatrician would give
me suggestions of adult physicians who would understand my condition and I had hoped she would help me explain my medical history to this new doctor. Instead, I was dropped without warning and with no support. I ended up switching to a different medical practice because I was so upset by my treatment. It was challenging to change to a new doctor without warning and it has continued to be difficult to find doctors who understand my medical history.

My story is not unusual. Most families and doctors do not talk to youth about health care transition at all or do not start the process soon enough. I didn’t know what questions to ask or when to start talking to my pediatrician about transitioning to a different doctor. I was concentrating much more on college than I was on my health care. Often, youth and families are so focused on education and employment that they neglect the health care transition piece. Yet, health care is incredibly important because without it, it can be difficult to achieve educational and career goals.

Ideally, youth should start thinking about health care transition in their early teen years by beginning to make their own appointments, thinking about questions to ask at each appointment, and seeing their doctor more independently. This happens at a different pace for everyone and some youth will need more support than others to make this transition successful. As youth get closer to finishing high school, it is important for them to learn about medical insurance and how going to college or getting a job may affect that insurance. Youth also need to know how to keep track of their insurance cards, health records, and medications.

Front page text of Transition QuickGuideAs youth turn eighteen, they also need to understand their new legal responsibilities in terms of their medical care. If they need assistance to make medical decisions, they need to consider wh
o they want to assist them in making those decisions and how much authority those caring adults should have. As teens, youth also need to talk to their pediatrician about when the transition to an adult doctor occurs in their practice and how to make it a smooth and supported process.

Planning and managing health and wellness are critical to reaching success in all other areas of youth transition. In order to help smooth this process along, the Youth Transitions Collaborative, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau’s Center for Health Care Transition Improvement (Got Transition), and the Office of Disability Employment Policy, with assistance from NCWD/Youth, developed The Transition QuickGuide: Take Charge of Planning and Managing Your Own Health and Career Goals. This guide offers tips, guidance, and ideas for youth on how to transition successfully in all areas of their health care.

Related Resources:

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Employers: Putting Internships to Work for You

The following is a cross-post from the U.S. Department of Labor Blog. The blog is written by Nathan Cunningham, a policy advisor at the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy. 

The end of summer is here and many interns are making decisions about their future employment and so are the employers who recruited them.

Given that 9Cover of the ODEP Internship Guide.2% of employers surveyed this year hosted internship programs, and two out of three interns received full-time offers last year, it’s clear that employers view internships as a value-added proposition.

Here at the U.S. Department of Labor, we’re passionate about supporting the principles of equal access and inclusion and creating opportunities so that everyone can showcase and contribute their skills. As a person with a disability, I’ve seen these principles of inclusion in action. My internship experience led to a job in the Office of Disability Employment Policy, where I’ve worked with my colleagues to promote inclusive internship opportunities for all young adults, including those with disabilities.

As an employer, you may already have an internship program, or you may be thinking about starting one for the very first time. The following three resources can help you in ensuring that the internship programs you sponsor are inclusive of people with disabilities.

1. Inclusive Internship Programs: A How-to Guide for Employers

This guide details the benefits that inclusive internship programs bring to employers. For example, internships allow businesses to tap into a diverse pool of talent that brings fresh thinking and innovation, to develop a recruitment pipeline, and to provide leadership opportunities for existing staff with management potential. This resource also lays out steps that employers should consider when designing, implementing, and evaluating inclusive internship programs of any size and discusses how having a diverse workforce can differentiate them from their competitors, help them capture new clients, and increase their market share.

2. Workforce Recruitment Program (WRP)

This recruitment and referral database connects federal and private sector employers nationwide with over 1,800 highly motivated pre-screened college students and recent graduates with disabilities who are eager to prove their abilities in the workplace through summer or permanent employment. Federal employers may register with their email address and browse the WRP pool of candidates. Private employers can take advantage of the WRP byposting permanent and temporary positions on www.WRP.jobs, which WRP participants can then respond to directly.

3. Resources for Federal Contractors on Section 503

Inclusive internships can also provide a way for employers who are Federal contractors and subcontractors to recruit employees to help meet their 7% utilization goal for hiring qualified individuals with disabilities under the recently amended regulations to Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act. The regulations prohibit employment discrimination and require employers to take affirmative action in recruiting, hiring, promoting, and retaining individuals with disabilities.

Although internships typically occur over the summer and last 2-3 months, they can also occur during spring or fall semesters on a full- or part-time basis. In many cases internships can be the door to long-term employment. Wherever and whenever they occur, ensuring your internship programs are inclusive of all aspects of diversity, including disability is an important strategy for business success in today’s competitive labor market.

Nathan Cunningham is a policy adviser in the department’s Office of Disability Employment Policy, where he focuses on youth issues.

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Doing Things Differently

BowmanBy Chelsey Bowman, intern with the National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth at the Institute for Educational Leadership   

After I explain my internship at the Institute for Educational Leadership’s (IEL) Center for Workforce Development (CWD), I am sometimes met with the comment, “but what does that have to do with sport psychology?” At IEL, I have had the opportunity to work on a number of projects and presentations related to the National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth (NCWD/Youth) and work-based learning. I also had the honor of attending multiple meetings, events, and celebrations for the 25th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). As an incoming doctoral student at Boston University, I am an aspiring counseling psychologist, who will specialize in sport and performance psychology and whose research interests center on athletes and associations between peer victimization and later life mental health concerns, specifically substance use and abuse.

Before starting my internship, I would reply, “well it doesn’t exactly align with my research interests, but I just finished working on a presentation that looked at whether there was an association between bully or victim status and occupational aspirations among middle school students. So I became interested in whether career development could be a possible buffer against the negative outcomes associated with bullying.” IEL and NCWD/Youth do a lot of amazing work to improve and provide career development and mentoring for students with disabilities. I was hoping to learn about their successful programs and strategies for engaging students in meaningful career development. It turns out that I learned a whole lot more!

Within my first week, I became absorbed in NCWD/Youth’s work. I was learning about transition age youth with disabilities and their disproportionate representation in the juvenile justice system. I began helping to edit a guide for youth with disabilities that outlined strategies and resources for a successful transition from high school to college. I started to realize that my work at IEL was not disconnected from my research and practice goals relating to athletes. Do I want to work with college athletes? Yes. Will some of these athletes have disabilities? Yes. Will I be better able to counsel these individuals when they are receiving support and accommodations to succeed in the classroom? Yes. Has this internship taught me about the barriers that college students with disabilities might face? Yes. Do I now have the knowledge to connect individuals to relevant resources and supports? Yes. Can I also provide career development resources to all my potential clients as they begin thinking about life post-college? Yes. When I return to my research and practice with athletes this fall, I will have a new understanding and set of resources for all students and especially for students with disabilities, which will allow me to continue to be an informed, compassionate, and resourceful aspiring sport psychologist.

Graduate school, research, funding, and future jobs demand that we specialize and study certain populations and specific research questions. This is for good reason because you cannot gather accurate and reliable data unless you have a narrow focus and a strong research question. Occasionally this pressure to specialize or become a master of one line of inquiry blocks out other growth opportunities. For me, this summer internship has reminded me that expanding my horizons will only make me a better researcher and practitioner. In the words of Brian Meersma, a college student who was just honored by the White House as a Champion of Change for his advocacy for students with learning disabilities via his blog and podcast on assistive technology, sometimes “doing things differently” allows for growth you did not even know was possible.

Check out some of our related resources for Youth Service Professionals like Chelsey!




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IDEA Changes Lives: My Experience with Early Intervention

The following blog is a cross-post from the official blog of the U.S. Department of Education. The blog is written by Kelly Coyne, the proud mom of 9.5 year-old twin girls in honor of the 40th anniversary of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). 

My name is Kelly and I am the proud mom of 9.5 year-old twin girls. They are happy, healthy and growing!

It wasn’t always this way. They were born premature. Their birth weights were 3.02 pounds and 3.15 pounds. Megan did a 3 week neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay and Mackenzie 2.5 months. Upon discharge the nurse said, “We called Early Intervention (EI) to come and work with you and the girls.” I was in such a haze; I said, “Ok, great.”

A week later, after our appointment had been confirmed, four people showed up at my house – an occupational therapist, physical therapist, Developmental Specialist, and Director of my local center. They explained the program to me and answered all my questions. We had a long road to get the girls to where they should be. Each week my team would come and work with me, the girls, and my husband. They helped us read cues, strategize sleep problems, and showed us exercises we needed to help the girls grow. We had many, many appointments with the doctors that EI helped me with. We were with the program for a full three years. As I got more comfortable and more involved with each session, I was asked to participate in a parent program for parents. I attended the seminar by way of the Parent Leadership Project (PLP) in conjunction with Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH). It was life changing for me.

I met amazing people, heard profound stories and felt like I wasn’t by myself in this. After attending I wondered if every family getting EI or not could have a feeling like I had at the seminar – to feel included, empowered, and ready to do what needed to be done. With help from the PLP, I started speaking at public hearings, EI staff meetings and trainings, and other venues. I shared my story with the people that needed to hear it most. As time progressed, I was appointed to the Massachusetts Interagency Coordinating Council (ICC) as a representative for Boston. This was so meaningful for me. I could connect with EI providers, doctors, DPH staff members, and other parents and help other families in my community. Soon my time was over as an ICC rep, and from there I have attended and helped many other families with Individualized Education Programs (IEP), special education laws, placements and other issues surrounding special needs and education. I have become a better mom, advocate and community member as a direct result of my involvement with Early Intervention, PLP and DPH. I use the skills I learned from PLP to advocate for my daughter, now in 3rd grade. I also use the skills Early Intervention taught me when I meet with doctors and in my personal life and business life. I am forever grateful to the EI staff who believed in my family and me.

Now, my children attend a charter school in the City of Boston. My daughter, who is in an inclusion classroom, is doing amazing! She can self advocate for her needs and loves school. The school works with me, her doctors, and psychologists so we can all agree on her needs for the classroom. Her twin sister also attends the same charter school. She is doing amazing as well! She sings in the choir, plays baseball and has a lot of friends. She is known as the social butterfly. Looking at her and back at her early days, I can’t help but be proud and grateful that this preemie girl is thriving! At one time everything was a struggle for her, and now it comes with such ease. This is all because of Early Intervention.

Now and Then, An Early Intervention Story” by Kelly Coyne.


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RAMPing Up from Mentor to Program Coordinator (Part One)!

Ready to Achieve Mentoring Program logoThe following blog is written by Amy McDowell, Coordinator for the Ready to Achieve Mentoring Program (RAMP) in Lansing, MI. RAMP is a program of the Institute for Educational Leadership, the host organization for NCWD/Youth and is based on a variety of foundational materials developed by NCWD/Youth. This blog is Part One in a series written by RAMP mentors who have gone on to be coordinators for their respective programs!

My RAMP journey began in October 2010.  I was taking a juvenile justice class at Lansing Community College and each student in the class was required to write a paper on an experience with a juvenile involved in the juvenile justice system. At the time, I didn’t have any experience with this population so I decided to become a mentor at Crossroads at Peckham, Inc. where youth were participating in the Ready to Achieve Mentoring Program (RAMP). RAMP is a career-focused mentoring program that helps at-risk youth, including those with disabilities, stay in school and set goals for their future. I will never forget my first year at Peckham because it was the year that one of the students at Crossroads was shot and killed two days before Christmas. I had never experienced a funeral for a slain teenager; the church was packed with family, friends, school and court officials, police officers, and Peckham, Inc. employees. That was the moment I decided that I wanted to work with youth already involved in or at-risk of involvement in the juvenile justice system. I felt RAMP was the best way for me to help these youth until I could graduate and get a job in the field.

Peckham RAMP youth at a job shadowing opportunity (wearing welding helmets)RAMP provides youth with an adult that will listen to them, connect them to information about their future careers, and help them to navigate through the different situations they may come against in life. When I was growing up, times were different. We didn’t have cell phones, only landlines and our version of texting was sending a letter in the mail. Today, youth are faced with so much more than in the past and some of them don’t have the skills to help navigate them through those tough situations, and the assistance of a caring adult, other than a parent, is beneficial in guiding youth along the right path. For many of these youth, the focus has always been on what they can’t do or staying out of trouble. RAMP is strength-based, focusing on their skills and future career interests, and keeping them motivated. Because of my passion to help these youth, in April 2011 I became more involved with RAMP by taking on more leadership roles during weekly class sessions.  I hardly ever missed a session because I enjoyed getting to know them by participating in structured bonding activities and assisting them with their career, educational, and personal goals. All of the students considered me to be their mentor and they talked to me about everything. After a while, my schedule became too full and I had to step away from RAMP. This was a difficult decision for me to make because I really believed RAMP was making a difference in the lives of the young people at Peckham and I wanted to be a part of that.

RAMP mock interviews 005After I received my Bachelor’s Degree in Criminal Justice from Ferris State University in May of 2014, I returned to Peckham Inc. to work in youth services. A few months after I was hired, I received a call from the Youth Services Manager that changed everything. The current RAMP coordinator had unfortunately been involved in a serious car accident and they needed someone with experience to keep RAMP going as a support staff. I gladly accepted this responsibility, and on January 1, 2015, I became the full-time RAMP coordinator.

If it had not been for the assignment in my juvenile justice class, I would have never been a part of such a successful program. I often think back to that teenager’s funeral and wonder what his life would have been like if given career exposure and soft-skill building opportunities such as RAMP. Over the last five years, I have witnessed RAMP change the lives of youth at Peckham. I recall the story of one youth in particular that was autistic and did not want to be touched or talked to at all. By the time he exited RAMP, he was talking to everyone and when you did not listen to him he touched your arm and addressed you by name to make sure you listened! I recently saw this student at a Transition Fair at his high school and he was greeting parents and students. When I spoke with him, he told me that he is looking for a campus job at Michigan State University. This program really helps our youth by teaching them the life skills needed to help them be successful and live independently. I plan to continue this career-focused mentoring work to connect youth to their future possibilities and change their lives.

 Related Resources


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DC YWLA: Changing the Workforce World – One Leader At A Time

Headshot: Patricia D. Gill

By Patricia D. Gill, Senior Program Associate, National Collaborative on Workforce & Disability for Youth at the Institute for Educational Leadership.

During their recent ceremony (and celebration!), the very first graduates of the DC Youth Workforce Leaders Academy (YWLA) shared their innovative ideas with proud colleagues, supportive organizations, local officials, and federal representatives. The 15 youth service professionals represent a diverse mix of nonprofit organizations and public agencies that provide youth workforce development services and had a wide range of capstone projects to improve their own work and advance the field. Najmah Ahmad of Urban Alliance noticed the large number of at-risk youth who get in to college only to drop out in the first year. She developed “Navigating Success: Staying the Course” to increase college matriculation by focusing on connections to campus services, identity development, and managing home sickness. As Najmah said, “YWLA showed me that quality programming doesn’t just happen because you ‘like kids’.  It takes real skills and a foundation in youth development and workforce preparation.”

Group photo of YWLA graduates on stage

Angela Hughes of YWCA National Capital Area tackled the lack of job shadowing opportunities and the youth’s need to develop pre-employment skills with a community mapping project. Youth mapped businesses along the U Street Corridor and shared information about YWCA programs. Job developers followed up with the businesses identified to find job shadowing partners. Elizabeth Edwards of Higher Achievement improved the workforce skills of participants with the “IT Certifications for All” 47-week program resulting in two IT certificates for each graduate. Three participants, Kristina Savoy and Ashley Williams of the DC Department of Employment Services and Nadia Sookar of the DC Rehabilitative Services Administration, partnered together to create an agreement and service referral map ensuring the seamless referral and progress of youth with disabilities through DOES employment programs. In her presentation, Kristina described the value of relationships she built through the Academy, stating, “Our shared experiences [in YWLA] created a revolutionary network of professionals. It is good to work with ‘like minds’ and know there are many with the same passion for youth work.”

Eric Seleznow speaking at graduationEric M. Seleznow, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration highlighted the federal support for workforce innovation, “There has been increased talk about education, training, and skills on the federal level, including the Vice-President’s job training report, the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, the focus on apprenticeships, and even a recent State of the Union Address.”                                                                                       Elissa Silverman speaking at graduationElissa Silverman, DC Councilmember At-Large, highlighted the ongoing DC budget process and the role these participants play in connecting work experience to outcomes like work, continued training, school retention, and community college enrollment. She said, “Summer work doesn’t have to be just temporary; for older youth, it can be an entry point. The ideas are in this room and I can’t wait to hear them.”

Both speakers cited the first-hand knowledge, real life expertise, and great ideas of the graduates and invited them to come speak to them at their offices and share more of their suggestions to improve the workforce development field. Deputy Assistant Secretary Seleznow ended with this plea, “We need to hear from you!”  Oh, I think you will, sir, I think you will!

The Youth Workforce Leaders Academy is a 10-month long professional development opportunity. Supported by the Community Foundation for the National Capital Region and run by the Institute for Educational Leadership (IEL) and the DC Alliance of Youth Advocates, this learning community supports the growth and success of staff from Washington, DC based organizations that provide workforce development services to youth ages 16-24, including youth with disabilities. Through monthly live learning sessions, expert led webinars, web-based topical discussions, individual professional development activities, and facilitated peer-to-peer learning; YWLA aims to expand and grow participants’ expertise in providing high quality youth workforce development services.

The YWLA session topic areas and materials were based on NCWD/Youth’s Youth Service Professionals’ Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (YSP/KSA) professional development initiative.

Also see round-ups from the DC Alliance of Youth Advocates and the Community Foundation for the National Capital Region!

Related Resources: 

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YWLA: Turning Youth Service Professionals into Pros!

Headshot: Patricia D. Gill        Headshot: Shaina CookBy Patricia D. Gill, Senior      Program Associate & Shaina Cook, Program Coordinator at the Institute for Educational Leadership 

Great things can happen when people from different sectors collaborate. This is particularly true when working with youth and workforce development—an area of work that requires a unique blend of resources and expertise from public and private organizations, nonprofits, local and federal governments, foundations, and other groups in order to be successful and effective.

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) calls upon youth service professionals to work together, across sectors, to support all youth as they enter the workforce. With a particular emphasis on serving our most disconnected youth and youth with disabilities, WIOA encourages the growth of critical areas such as career preparation, career guidance and counseling, and career pathways—growth that can only happen when we work together.

Group learning at Youth Workforce Leaders Academy session While WIOA’s message about supporting disconnected youth is clear, there is no cohesive professional development or training system through which youth service professionals can receive the education and skills they need to effectively help youth as they enter the workforce. There are no credentials, no certificates, and no way to determine who is highly qualified to do this work. There is no single path into the youth service and development sector, nor is there a common knowledge base of best practices from which to pull. Youth service professionals have the heart and the dedication to prepare youth for the transition into adulthood, but they also need the training and professional support to ensure they are doing it well.

The Youth Workforce Leaders Academy (YWLA) is an example of such a professional development and training program. Supported by a grant from the Greater Washington Workforce Development Collaborative and led through a partnership between the DC Alliance of Youth Advocates and the Institute for Educatio
nal Leadership
’s Center for Workforce Development, YWLA is proof that critical needs can be met when people and organizations collaborate and pool local and federal resources.

Youth Workforce Leaders Academy LogoYWLA is a year-long learning community that provides professional development to youth service professionals and youth workforce development providers in the Washington, DC area. Through monthly in-person learning sessions, online discussions and webinars, capstone project development, and collaborating with peers, the 15 members of YWLA’s first cadre received quality training, resources, and strategies for improving their organizations’ work in youth workforce development. When they graduate on May 28, with U.S. Department of Labor Deputy Assistant Secretary Eric Seleznow and D.C. Councilmember Elissa Silverman offering congratulatory remarks, these youth service professionals will have knowledge about policy and best practices, an enhanced understanding of their work and the youth they serve, and will be able to move forward as innovative leaders in their work!

Related Resources:


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Changing the Youth Narrative from Behind the Walls

Headshot: Byron Kline

By Byron Kline, Project Manager for the Right Turn Career-Focused Transition Initiative at the Institute for Educational Leadership’s Center for Workforce Development.

“No one truly knows a nation until one has been inside its jails. A nation should not be judged by how it treats its highest citizens but its lowest ones.” – Nelson Mandela

Nowadays, the narratives about crime and youth and young adults are as disconcertingly familiar as the narrators’ positions are predictable. Progressives get accused of excusing bad behavior (i.e., riots and looting), while conservatives are faulted for downplaying alleged police misconduct (i.e., the shooting of 12 year old Tamir Rice in Cleveland, 18 year old Michael Brown in Ferguson, and more recently, 25 year old Freddie Gray’s fatal injuries sustained while in the custody of Baltimore Police).

But the video accounts of violence between law enforcement and young folks that dominate our recent headlines, do not truly reflect the enormous societal damage that over reliance on police and prosecutors to address social problems has caused (think, the School-to-Prison Pipeline). Mass incarceration is the devastating end result. And jail is where mass incarceration begins. On any given day, 10,000 youth are detained or incarcerated in adult jails and prisons. Studies show that youth held in adult facilities are 36 times more likely to commit suicide and are at the greatest risk of sexual victimization. Unsurprisingly, these risks are magnified for youth with disabilities or histories of trauma and abuse as America’s reliance on jails has grown sharply since the 1980s with the cost and consequences of being locked up falling disproportionately on low-income people and communities of color.

And for what? Is society better off having these kids off the street?

Apparently not. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Justice and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that transferring youth to the adult criminal justice system does not protect the community, and in fact substantially increased the likelihood that youth will re-offend. Fortunately, there are ways to increase public safety, ensure fairness, and reserve jail beds for those who must be there. And for those youth who must be there, KentuckianaWorks (Right Turn – Louisville) provides an example of how community-based organizations can work with their local jails and youth detention facilities to help youth successfully transition back to their communities upon release.

Earlier this year, national Right Turn staff and staff from all five Right Turn sites got the opportunity to visit and speak to confined youth at Louisville’s Youth Detention Services (YDS) facility where Right Turn – Louisville provides workforce development services and programming for youth enrolled in Right Turn 60-90 days prior to their scheduled release date. It is during this time, while youth are still locked up, that they receive individualized high school-level education toward their high school diploma.  This is also the time when youth are strongly encouraged by Right Turn counselors to really think about what they want to do with their lives in terms of a career.

 Individualized Career DevelpRight Turn youth engage in workforce development through a 3-phase career development process: 1) Self-Exploration, where youth identify their personal strengths, skills, values and interests; 2) Career Exploration, where youth learn about specific careers; and 3) Career Planning and Management, where youth engage in activities designed to align their personal career goals with appropriate education and training (i.e., earning industry recognized occupational credentials and pursuing postsecondary credentials).  These critical beginning steps by youth towards finding a career are guided by caring adult career-focused mentors who start working with the youth prior to release on the initial workforce development phases, with the hope that the mentor/mentee rapport established inside will continue and flourish when youth are eventually back on the outside in their communities.

The YDS facility visit included a panel discussion with three young Black men already enrolled in Right Turn. Staff asked questions about what their experiences were thus far and specifically, whether the initiative was making a difference. The youth’s responses were very candid, but overall very positive and enthusiastic. It’s important that program activities “not be lame” and always balance “the work” of self-exploration and career exploration with “something fun” (i.e., game and movie nights, college tours). All three agreed that having a mentor was a good thing as they made a point to give shout-outs to a few of their mentors who happened to be in the audience. But, when asked what they wanted and needed most when they got out, “finding a job” was overwhelmingly at the top of the list.

Group of youth and adults from Right Turn Lousiville

Research shows that youth of color are overrepresented at nearly every point of contact with the juvenile justice system. As such, the three young Black men that sat on the panel were not so unlike, their many peers also in jail or that often fall victim to gang violence or ill-fated encounters with the police. What hopefully sets these particular young men enrolled in Right Turn apart, is them having a new sense of what is possible for their lives.  And while having this ‘new sense of what is possible’ may not keep young men like Freddie Gray from getting stopped by the police in the first place, discovering what you are good at through self-exploration and identifying a viable career path for yourself is inherently empowering and life changing. Especially for youth in the juvenile justice system or for those at risk of entering the system who must constantly contend with the biases and low expectations of others.

It is important that people know that a real education is possible even when kids are locked up, as is career exploration. The same desire for employment and self-sufficiency that we demand and expect from middleclass, college-bound young people with access to greater resources, is the same hopeful narrative youth in the system often have for themselves. Unfortunately, this more optimistic narrative is seldom heard in today’s public discourse about minors in juvenile lock-up.  It is important that we insist on publicizing the real-life more accurate storyline that, for every young person that may engage in crime and violence in their communities, there are many others – even those currently in detention – that desperately want to find gainful employment and are looking for jobs and constructive ways to give back to their communities.

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Posted in Career Exploration, Career Preparation, Collaboration, Communicating with Youth, Juvenile Justice, Mentoring, Positive Peer Influence, Work-based Learning | Comments Off on Changing the Youth Narrative from Behind the Walls

The ADA Generation: Celebrating Disability Civil Rights Successes

The following blog was written by Sarah Ferrell, an intern with the National Collaborative on Workforce & Disability for Youth, housed at the Institute for Educational Leadership.

Want to share your own ADA Generation story? In celebration of the 25th anniversary of the ADA and the contribution and impact of the ADA Generation, our host organization, IEL, is collecting stories from youth and young adults with disabilities who grew up under the ADA and their allies. These stories can be personal narratives, reflections, or other creative work. IEL is particularly interested in stories related to transition to adulthood, including secondary and postsecondary education; work skills, internships, and employment; and independent living. IEL will publish selected stories on its website. IEL will also share them through social media and include them in IEL’s ADA celebrations. See more details and how to submit your story online.

My first grade class was gathered together to be told that we would have a new student join our class in a few weeks. This student had a condition called Cerebral Palsy, a condition that affected her ability to move and speak. We were told that she was in a wheelchair and would be accompanied by an aide to help her complete her classwork, eat her lunch, and get around the building. But it was important to know that this student was still just as smart as us; even though she could not speak as well as we could, she could still think and communicate.

When the student did join my class, she was in the classroom the majority of the day, participated in all of the related arts, and ate at our lunch table. I saw how the girl could point to objects on a picture board and was learning to read like me and my classmates. Her aides were a middle-aged woman and occasionally a young man who were so kind to the rest of us; I loved sitting and talking with both the student and the aides during lunch.

A few years later I would join the chorus and be seated next to an older student with Autism. I would also be partnered as a reading buddy with a younger student who had a learning disability.

DisAbility Awareness Program (dAp) Day at my school was one of our favorite days of the year. Instead of attending our regular classes, my elementary classmates and I would be moved around the building, learning about relay devices for Deaf individuals, participating in wheelchair races, interacting with service dogs, and hearing from different speakers abut disability-related issues. I still remember an elderly couple with Cerebral Palsy talking about their experiences in college and work, and remembered my former classmate who also had Cerebral Palsy, hoping she too could go to college one day.

By high school, I had joined the “Buddy Program,” an after-school group for students with and without disabilities to just hang out and establish relationships. Then, during my junior year, because of the relationships I had developed with students in the Academic Life Skills (ALS) program, I became a peer tutor. As a peer tutor, I accompanied another student to her software applications class to assist her in completing assignments and tests. I quickly learned that we had to communicate with the special education teacher to make sure the girl was receiving adequate accommodations, and continually had to advocate with her when the teacher was not allowing her additional time or adjusting assignment requirements (the teacher was willing to make accommodations when requested, but she was not proactive in modifying assignments and tests). Other students in ALS were also included in regular classes and could be seen walking the halls, going to their lockers, or eating in the cafeteria on their own. Their individual personalities and interests were celebrated, like one boy who pretended to be the “Mayor” of the school and had weekly lunch meetings with the principal.Front cover of No Pity by Joseph Shapiro

Needless to say, when I began reading No Pity by Joseph Shapiro I was shocked to learn the history of civil rights in the US for the disability community. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was not passed until 1975 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was not passed until 1990.  Really, not until 1990? I was in first grade in 1999 when all students were fully or near-fully included in the classroom and dAp day was a well-established and regular event. Could it be that students elsewhere did not grow up in inclusive environments like this?

In this way, dAp day at best did not reach its full potential, at worst did a disservice to us students. We learned about the abilities of individuals in the disability community, we learned to not fear someone just because they were different, and we learned how to be respectful of someone who uses a service dog; but we never learned that life was not all fine and dandy for the disability community. We received a (albeit watered-down) version of the civil rights movement beginning in kindergarten, but we never learned that our peers with disabilities also had to continually fight for their rightful place in society. These topics could easily have been included in a dAp day presentation. Even in high school as a peer tutor and involved in the buddy program, nobody ever discussed the clash between those who wanted full inclusion for students with disabilities or those who wanted separate learning environments. It was not even until my third year in the buddy program that the teacher facilitated training on inclusive language and appropriate behavior for group members. It was almost as if up until then we were just volunteers doing a charitable service, without 1) acknowledging the mutual benefit for all participants or 2) realizing the disservice we could do through inappropriate language or behavior.

Still, dAp day, the Buddy Program, and peer tutoring existed – and thrived! – in my schools.

After a little cursory research, I learned that the county’s dAp day was officially created in 1979, just four short years after the implementation of IDEA (originally titled the Education for All Handicapped Children Act), but had been informally run for several years before that. A teacher created the informal program in her classroom which spread school-wide, and before long, she left her teaching position to run the program for the county full-time. Reading Shapiro’s descriptions of parents and students that struggled for years to have their rights recognized by the public education system and broader communities shocked me, when it seemed to happen so effortlessly from the bottom-up in my county’s schools. Shapiro provides accounts that continue into the 1990s of schools denying entrance or integrated classrooms for students with disabilities, while at the same time I was participating in such fully integrated classrooms. What was it about that community at that time that enabled progress so much quicker than the rest of the nation? Are there still places throughout the country that continue to deny rights to the disability community, but we just aren’t hearing about it?

My K-12 experience demonstrates without a doubt the successes of IDEA and ADA. It highlights the route moving forward: the potential for other schools and communities to adapt and better support their entire community, and for current systems to grow and improve existing structures and programs to assure equal access and nondiscrimination for people with disabilities

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Posted in Advocacy, Autism, Disability History, Education, Guideposts for Success, Inclusion, Positive Peer Influence | Tagged , , | Comments Off on The ADA Generation: Celebrating Disability Civil Rights Successes