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C

  • Career Assessment
    Career assessment refers to a comprehensive process conducted over a period of time, involving a multi-disciplinary team with the purpose of identifying individual characteristics, education, training, and placement needs. Such assessments provide educators and others with the basis for planning an individual's school and career development program. Career assessment may use both formal and informal methodologies and should provide the individual with insight into his or her vocational potential (Leconte & Neubert, 1997).
  • Career Counseling
    Includes the following types of activities: A) assisting in the development of career choices over the life span; B) addressing individual needs; and C) assisting in clarifying career decision making.
  • Career Development
    A life-long process with age and stage appropriate strategies that should be employed by the professionals engaged in each particular stage of development. All of the definitions recognize that the development process must include the following: A) the provision of basic knowledge; B) exposure to careers; C) the development of work values; and D) the discovery of specific vocational pathways that meet the person's interests, aptitudes, and opportunities.
  • Career Education
    Career education refers to an educational emphasis stressing the teaching of life career roles (e.g., family member, citizen, community participant, worker, etc.) early in life, to be followed up throughout the student's education in preparing him or her for those roles (Sitlington, Clark, & Kolstoe, 2000).
  • Career Exploration
    The process of finding a rewarding career path, as well as specific jobs within a particular career path.
  • Career Guidance
    Refers to services and activities intended to assist individuals of any age and at any point throughout their lives to make educational, training, and occupational choices and to manage their careers. Such services may be found in schools, universities and colleges, training institutions, public employment services, the workplace, the voluntary or community sector, and in the private sector. The activities may take place on an individual or group basis, and be face-to-face or at a distance (including help lines and web-based services). They include career information provisions (in print, ICT-based and other forms), assessment and self-assessment tools, counseling interviews, career education programs (to help individuals develop their self-awareness, opportunity awareness, and career management skills), taster programs (to sample options before choosing them), work search programs, and transition services.
  • Career Preparation
    Core activities that help youth become prepared for a successful future in careers or post secondary education institutions including career awareness activities that expose young people to information about the job market, job related skills, the wide variety of jobs that exist and the education and training they require, as well as the work environment where they are performed. Core activities also include: 1) Career assessments (formal and informal); 2) Opportunity awareness including guest speaker informational interviews, research-based activities such as wage comparisons and Web searches, community mapping, and exposures to post secondary education such as campus visits and college fairs; and 3) Work-readiness skills such as soft-skills development, computer competency, and job search skills.
  • Career and Technical Education
    Career and technical education refers to organized educational activities that offer a sequence of courses that provide individuals with coherent and rigorous content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills needed to prepare for further education and careers in current or emerging professions; provides technical skill proficiency, an industry-recognized credential, a certificate, or an associate degree; and may include prerequisite courses (other than a remedial course). The term also includes competency-based applied learning that contributes to the academic knowledge, higher-order reasoning and problem-solving skills, work attitudes, general employability skills, technical skills, occupation-specific skills, and knowledge of all aspects of an industry, including entrepreneurship, of an individual (Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006, Public Law 109-270).
  • Case Management
    The main purpose of case management is to coordinate the provision of services for individual children and their families who require services from multiple service providers. Case managers take on roles ranging from brokering services to linking with and advocating for services that families need. There is a considerable amount of variation in case management models. In the wraparound model, case managers involve families in a participatory process of developing an individualized plan focusing on individual and family strengths in multiple life domains.
  • Center for Independent Living (CIL)
    Community-based, not-for-profit, non-residential organizations that provide advocacy, peer counseling, independent living skills training, and information and referral to persons of any age with any disability.
  • Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD)
    Found in individuals who have no trouble detecting the presence of sound, but do have difficulty processing and remembering language-related tasks (e.g., understanding conversations in noisy environments, following complex oral directions, learning new vocabulary words or foreign languages). These hearing difficulties can affect their ability to develop normal language skills, succeed academically, or communicate effectively (Schminky & Baran, 1999). CAPD often co-exists with other disabilities such as speech and language disorders or delays, dyslexia, attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity, social, and/or emotional problems (Chermak & Musiek, 1997).
  • Charter Schools
    Charter schools are public schools providing choices for families and greater accountability for results.
  • Client Assistance Programs (CAP)
    The purpose of the Client Assistance Program is to advise and inform clients, client applicants, and other individuals with disabilities of all the available services and benefits under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, and of the services and benefits available to them under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). In addition, grantees may assist and advocate for clients and client applicants in relation to projects, programs, and services provided under the Rehabilitation Act. In providing assistance and advocacy under Title I of the Rehabilitation Act, a CAP agency may provide assistance and advocacy with respect to services that are directly related to employment for the client or client applicant.
  • Co-morbidity
    The term for when two or more conditions that are diagnostically distinguishable from one another tend to occur together.
  • Cognitive Abilities Tests
    Assessments used by schools and workforce preparation programs to measure intellectual skills and to diagnose neuropsychological problems and learning disabilities.
  • Collaboration
    A mutually beneficial and well-defined relationship entered into by two or more organizations to achieve common goals. The relationship includes a commitment to: a definition of mutual relationships and goals; a jointly developed structure and shared responsibility; mutual authority and accountability; and sharing of resources and rewards (Mattesich & Monsey, 1992). Collaboration involves formal, sustained commitment among partners to accomplish a shared, clearly defined mission (Kerka, 1997). Collaborative efforts can overcome service fragmentation and interrelated problems resulting in improved services to individuals with disabilities (Melaville & Blank, 1993).
  • Common Performance Measures
    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has developed common performance measures for programs with similar goals. OMB has developed uniform evaluation metrics, called "common measures," for job training and employment programs as well as four additional crosscutting, government-wide functions.
  • Communication
    Refers to the accurate and efficient transmission and/or reception of information, either verbally (spoken or written) or non-verbally.
  • Communities of Practice (CoP)
    A group of people that agree to interact regularly to solve a persistent problem or improve practice in an area that is important to them. CoPs exist in many forms, some are large in scale and dealing with complex problems, others are small in scale and focused on a problem at a very specific level. CoPs are a way of working that invite the groups that have a stake in an issue to be a part of the problem solving.
  • Community Rehabilitation Program
    In the vocational rehabilitation system, a "community rehabilitation program" is a program that provides directly, or facilitates the provision of, vocational rehabilitation services to people with disabilities to enable them to maximize opportunities for employment. Some of the services provided by a community rehabilitation program may include, but are not limited to: 1) Medical, psychiatric, psychological, social, and vocational services that are provided under one management; 2) Recreational therapy, physical and occupational therapy, speech, language, and hearing therapy; 3) Psychiatric, psychological, and social services including positive behavior management; 4) Disability evaluations and orientation and mobility services; and 5) Job development, placement, and retention services. A community rehabilitation program often has in-depth knowledge about disability supports, services and providers in their communities.
  • Community Schools
    A community school is both a place and a set of partnerships between the school and other community resources. Its integrated focus on academics, health and social services, youth and community development, and community engagement leads to improved student learning, stronger families, and healthier communities. Schools become centers of the community and are open to everyone all day, every day, evenings, and weekends. Using public schools as hubs, community schools bring together many partners to offer a range of supports and opportunities to children, youth, families, and communities. Partners work to achieve these results: 1) Children are ready to learn when they enter school and every day thereafter. All students learn and achieve to high standards. 2) Young people are well prepared for adult roles in the workplace, as parents and as citizens. 3) Families and neighborhoods are safe, supportive and engaged. 4) Parents and community members are involved with the school and their own life-long learning.
  • Community and Faith-Based Initiatives
    Centers for Faith-Based and Community Initiatives have been created in eleven Federal agencies to strengthen and expand the role of Faith-Based and Community organizations in providing social services.
  • Community-Based Interventions
    Seek to provide a range (mild to intensive) of clinical and social supports to create a network of services for youth and families within their community. Community-based interventions may include services such as case management, home-based services, respite services, wraparound approaches, therapeutic foster care, therapeutic group homes, and crisis services.
  • Compensatory Learning Strategies
    Strategies that focus on processes, techniques, and practices that lessen the effects of a learning disability and build skills for more complex reasoning. Compensatory learning strategies center on the specific processing problems that accompany learning disabilities.
  • Compensatory Strategies
    Strategies that build skills in individuals by focusing on processes, techniques, and practices that lessen the effects of a disability.
  • Competitive Employment
    In general, competitive employment is a job where an individual is working for pay in an individual, community-based job where the individual is paid directly by the employer.
  • Comprehensive Career Planning (CCP)
    Refers to a guidance system that navigates an individual through education, knowledge, and skills acquisition on the path to obtaining a career. The goal of CCP is to establish an approach to one's future that allows for a growth plan into a fulfilling and meaningful career as opposed to a job.
  • Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children with Serious Emotional Disturbances Program
    The program provides grants to states and communities for the improvement and expansion of community-based systems of care for children with serious emotional disturbances and their families. Individualized service plans dictate the range of services and can include can include non-mental health services including education, vocational counseling, rehabilitation, and protection and advocacy.
  • Conduct Disorders
    A complicated group of behavioral and emotional problems in youth manifested by difficulty in following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. Youth with conduct disorders may exhibit some of the following behaviors: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness, lying, stealing, or other serious violations of rules. They are often viewed by other youth, adults, and social agencies as bad or delinquent, rather than having a behavioral disorder.
  • Conflict Resolution
    Refers to the process of becoming aware of a conflict, diagnosing its nature, and employing an appropriate problem-solving method in such a way that it simultaneously achieves the goals of all involved and enhances the relationships among them (Dettmer, Thurston, & Dyck, 1993).
  • Consumer Empowerment
    Refers to programs that allow for--and even promote--self-determination, self-advocacy, and active participation in the decision-making process at the individual and systems levels.
  • Coordinated Work of Providers
    Providers of services to employers need to coordinate and have: 1) Marketing to prospective employers; 2) Understanding of and adherence to typical company screening processes; 3) Thorough knowledge of youth skills, interests, and aptitudes; and 4) Matching youth to employer needs and circumstances.
  • Corporate Entrepreneurship
    The idea that firms can behave in a proactive, innovative, and risk-taking manner.
  • Criterion-Referenced Tests
    Instruments used to measure whether an individual has learned specific information or can perform certain activities.
  • Critical Incident Technique
    Analysts identify critical incidents that illustrate behaviors that are effective or ineffective in accomplishing the aims of the job. Critical incidents are then classified into categories of behavior. CIT is typically used as a supplemental data collection technique to another method. It is time consuming, requires someone with special training, and produces data that is not necessarily representative of the range of tasks performed in the occupation.
  • Customized Employment
    A process for individualizing the employment relationship between a job seeker or an employee and an employer in ways that meet the needs of both. It is based on a match between the unique strengths, needs, and interests of the job candidate with a disability, and the identified business needs of the employer or the self-employment business chosen by the candidate.

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