Terms in Definitions » S


  • School-Based Mental Health Services
    School-based treatment and support interventions are designed to identify emotional disturbances and to assist parents, teachers, and counselors in developing comprehensive strategies for addressing these disturbances. School-based services may include wraparound services such as counseling or other school-based programs for emotionally disturbed children, adolescents, and their families within the school, home, and community environment.
  • Screening
    A process used by lay people to determine whether further diagnostic assessment should be provided by professionals.
  • Self-Accommodate
    To provide accommodations for oneself rather than requesting accommodations from employers, professors, or other persons in the community.
  • Self-Advocacy
    The act of understanding one's disability, being aware of the strengths and weaknesses resulting from the limitations imposed by the disability, and being able to articulate reasonable need for accommodation (Hartman, 1993). The attitudes and abilities required to act as the primary causal agent in one's life and make choices and decisions regarding one's actions free from undue external influence or interference (Wehmeyer, 1992). The ability of an individual to set goals that are important to him or her and having the skills to achieve these goals (Field & Hoffman, 1996).
  • Self-Care
    Refers to the skills necessary to fulfill basic needs such as those related to health, safety, food preparation and nutrition, hygiene and grooming, and money management.
  • Self-Determination
    The right and ability of all persons to direct their own lives, as well as the responsibility to accept the consequences of their own choices. Some of the skills that make someone self-determined or a successful self-advocate are the following: knowledge of one's strengths and limitations; belief in one's ability to achieve goals; ability to start and complete tasks; ability to assertively assert one's wants, needs, and concerns; and the ability to make decisions and see other options.
  • Self-Direction
    Refers to the capacity to organize, structure, and manage activities in a manner that best serves the objectives of the individual.
  • Self-Efficacy
    A belief in one's ability to obtain a goal (Martin & Marshall, 1995).
  • Self-Knowledge
    The ability to recognize and gauge one's own skills, tastes, capabilities, needs, etc. realistically.
  • Self-Sufficiency
    In the strictest sense, self-sufficiency refers to the ability to meet all of one's needs without any outside assistance. The term is commonly used in terms of financial economic self-sufficiency, which refers to being able to meet one's financial obligations without outside assistance. Therefore, a person who is economically self-sufficient would not rely on cash assistance or cash benefits to meet his or her daily living needs.
  • Service Tunnels
    Each of the many systems that serve youth has a fixed menu of services or solutions to offer. Because most agency staff members think primarily of the set of solutions within their system, they usually send youth down one of these "service tunnels." The tunnel may be the most appropriate choice among the agency's set of options, but may still be an ineffective course of action. Once a youth starts down a particular tunnel, it is often hard to reverse course and take a different path (Ross and Miller, 2005, p. 4).
  • Service-Learning
    A method under which students learn and develop through active participation in thoughtfully organized service experiences that meet actual community needs and that are coordinated in collaboration with the school and community.
  • Sheltered Employment
    Designed to assist individuals who for whatever reason are viewed as not capable of working in a competitive employment setting in their local community. The term "sheltered employment" is often used to refer to a wide range of segregated vocational and non-vocational programs for individuals with disabilities, such as sheltered workshops, adult activity centers, work activity centers, and day treatment centers.
  • Site Visits
    Site visits and tours typically involve a group of young people (accompanied by an adult chaperon) visiting a business in order to learn about real-life work environments.
  • Situational Work Assessments
    Occupational skills and work behaviors that are assessed in real or simulated settings and measure capacities and competencies to perform essential job duties of specific competitive employment positions.
  • Skill Development Programs
    Skills development programs include a variety of work-based options to expose youth to workplace requirements and culture and specific training that prepares them for jobs in the community's predominant industries.
  • Small Business
    A term used to describe a microenterprise. Also defined as a business that is independently owned and operated and that is not dominant in its field of operation, and generally employs fewer than 100 people.
  • Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs)
    Centers in many U.S. communities that provide free assistance regarding business feasibility, business planning, marketing suggestions, financing, and management, SBDCs are part of the U.S. Small Business Administration.
  • Social Competence
    The set of skills necessary to interact successfully with other people, to be generous and thoughtful, and to use accepted social techniques. Social competence skills include:
    • The ability to interact with other people such as:
      • Resolving conflicts;
      • Cooperating;
      • Working together on a team;
      • Understanding and being tolerant of other people and cultures; and
      • Working with diverse populations.
    • Choosing words precisely, being persuasive, and listening.
    • Crafting effective written communications such as emails, memos, and reports.
    • The ability to speak a second language.
  • Social Networks
    Often are informal collections of employees or friends based on either demographic criteria (age, race/ethnicity, gender) or interest (employees who are carrying for aging parents).
  • Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)
    A monthly insurance benefit to individuals with disabilities who meet certain medical criteria and who either: A) have previous work experience themselves, and have paid Social Security taxes (FICA) for enough years to be covered under Social Security; or B) have a retired or deceased parent who has paid into the system. Individuals on SSDI typically are also eligible for Medicare (after 24-month waiting period if the person is under 65 years old).
  • Soft Skills
    The skills, traits, work habits, and attitudes that all workers across all occupations must have in order to obtain, maintain, and progress in employment. These include being dependable, responsible, punctual, adaptable, honest, honorable, well-mannered, positive toward work, and appropriately dressed/groomed. Soft skills also refer to such attributes as ability to get along with others, work in teams, attend to tasks, work independently, and provide excellent customer service, both within the company and externally.
  • Special Education (Sped)
    Education services for children and youth with disabilities.
  • Specific Learning Disability (SLD): IDEA
    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) defines SLDs as a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. This term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. This term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
  • Specific Learning Disability (SLD): Rehabilitation Act
    The Rehabilitation Act defines a person with a SDL as an individual who has a severe physical or mental impairment which seriously limits one or more functional capacities (such as mobility, communication, self-care, self-direction, interpersonal skills, work tolerance, or work skills) in terms of an employment outcome; whose vocational rehabilitation can be expected to require multiple vocational rehabilitation services over an extended period of time; and who has one or more physical or mental disabilities or combination of disabilities … to cause comparable substantial functional limitation.
  • State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
    Title XIX of the Social Security Act gives each state the authorization to offer health insurance for children.
  • Student Earned Income Exclusion (SEIE)
    This Social Security provision allows a person who is under age 22 and regularly attending school to exclude earnings from affecting their Social Security payment amount.
  • Substance Abuse
    The overindulgence in and dependence of a drug or other chemical leading to effects that are detrimental to the individual's physical and mental health, or the welfare of others.
  • Substance Use
    The use of a chemical substance, legal or illegal, taken to induce intoxication or reduce withdrawal symptoms resulting in dependency, abuse, or addiction. Substances may include alcohol, illicit and prescription drugs, paint, household cleaners, plants, and others.
  • Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA)
    A level of earnings used by the Social Security Administration (SSA) to indicate the performance of significant and productive physical or mental work for pay or profit that pertains to eligibility of many of SSA's benefit and incentive programs. SSA calculates two SGA levels: one for individuals who are blind or visually impaired and one for individuals with other types of disabilities. SGA is adjusted on an annual basis for inflation.
  • Summary of Performance (SOP)
    Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), for each child whose eligibility under the special education terminate due to graduation with a regular diploma, or due to exceeding the age of eligibility, the local education agency, "shall provide the child with a summary of the child's academic achievement and functional performance, which shall include recommendations on how to assist the child in meeting the child's postsecondary goals."
  • Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
    A monthly cash benefit that is available from the Social Security Administration to people who have a disability, low income, and few resources. People who receive SSI also automatically become eligible to receive Medicaid medical insurance in most states.
  • Supported Employment
    Supported employment means competitive employment in an integrated setting, or employment in integrated work settings in which individuals with the most significant disabilities are provided ongoing support services through an external source such as a community rehabilitation program or a State Vocational Rehabilitation program or a State Vocational Rehabilitation agency. Supported employment provides assistance such as job coaches, transportation, assistive technology, specialized job training, and individually tailored support.
  • Supported Housing
    Supportive housing is a combination of housing and services intended as a cost-effective way to help people live more stable, productive lives. Supportive housing can be coupled with such social services as job training, life skills training, and case management to populations in need of assistance, including the developmentally disabled. Supportive housing is intended to be a successful solution that helps people recover and succeed while reducing the overall cost of care.
  • Supported Living
    Often involves partnerships between individuals with disabilities, their families, and professionals in making decisions about where or how the person wishes to live. People in supported living may need little or no services from professionals, or they may need 24-hour personal care. The kind and amount of supports are tailored to the individual's needs.
  • Supports
    Ongoing relationships through which young people become connected to others and to community resources. Supports can be motivational, emotional, and strategic. The supports can take many different forms, but they must be affirming, respectful, and ongoing. The supports are most powerful when they are offered by a variety of people, such as parents and close relatives, community social networks, teachers, youth workers, employers, health providers, and peers who are involved in the lives of young people (Center for Youth Development and Policy Research, 1996).
  • System of Care (SOC)
    A philosophy of how care should be delivered. It is based on principles of interagency collaboration; individualized strength-based activities; culturally- and developmentally-appropriate services; community-based services; and full participation by families, including youth. There are various models in which to deliver an appropriate system of care: 1) Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) - A multi-disciplinary approach developed in the 1980s to provide treatment, rehabilitation, and support services to person with severe and persistent mental illness. ACT is a form of case management that is distinguished from more traditional case management. 2) Core Gifts - A philosophy that discerns between skills (what you have learned to do, although you may not feel joy in doing them); talents (what you have an innate capacity to do, but may not choose to engage or develop); and gifts (the talents that you feel the deepest connection to, most compelled to learn about, and eager to give). 3) Transition for Independence Program (TIP) - A system offering seven guiding principles that build on the premise of individualized, strength-based services: A) Engage young people through relationship development, person-centered planning, and a focus on their futures; B) Tailor services and supports to be accessible, coordinated, developmentally appropriate, and built on strengths to enable the young person to pursuer their goals in all transition domains; C) Acknowledge and develop personal choice and social responsibility with young people; D) Ensure that a safety-net of support is provided by a young person's team, parents, and other natural supports; E) Enhance a young person's competencies to assist them in achieving greater self-sufficiency and confidence; F) Maintain an outcome focus in the TIP system at the individual young person, program, and system levels; and G) Involve young people, parents, and other community partners in the TIP system at the practice, program, and community levels.

Need help viewing a document? View our document help page.

Have a comment or suggestion in regard to our site? Please send us your feedback.